Music, Capitalism, and the Nation: A Symposium on the Roots of Transcultural Philippine Music

The University of the Philippines College of Music cordially invites the public to an interdisciplinary one-day symposium on the theme “Music, Capitalism, and Nation: On the Roots of Transcultural Philippine Music,” on Thursday, 18 August 2016, Abelardo Hall Auditorium, 9AM to 5PM. A gathering of local music scholars, the symposium will explore the history of music modernity in the country, particularly on the effects of the larger force of late 19th century capitalism in the development of syncretic (transcultural) Philippine music that combined old and new music-cultural elements. Some of the effects of this late 19th century capitalism in the country were the production of the first and only music theory book in Tagalog (paper by Arwin Q Tan), “Print Music Commodification and Costumbrismo” (paper by Jose S Buenconsejo), “Selling Zarzuela” (Isidora Miranda, University of Wisconsin-Madison), “Music Journalism” (Ma. Patricia Silvestre), “Localizing Imported Danza” (Ma. Alexandra Chua, University of Santo Tomas), “Concept of Individual Property in Music” that led to the first music plagiarism case in the Philippines (Jonas Baes). To illustrate the larger ramifications in the incorporation of European cultural presence in modernizing Asia, Dr. David Francis Urrows, special guest speaker from Hong Kong Baptist University, will discuss “Music Education in China under the French Protectorate as Cultural Interchange.” Philippine Studies expert Dr. Ramon “Bomen” Guillermo will be the keynote speaker.

The symposium is open to the public, especially to college teachers in the humanities and social science, with conference fee of 500 pesos (cost for conference kit and admission ticket to Enzo Medel piano concert). The symposium itself is free to students with valid IDs.

Documentary film on the Music of Southern Mindanao Indigenous People at UP Music

The Humanities Division of the National Research Council of the Philippines, in cooperation with the University of the Philippines College of Music, invites the public to the preview of a documentary film titled The Meanings of Music in Manobo Dulangan, T’boli, Obo, and the Tagakaolo Communities in Southern Mindanao. It will be held on 29 April 2016, 7PM, at the Abelardo Hall Auditorium in Quezon City. This is the first of three films that Dr. Jose S. Buenconsejo, musicologist at UP College of Music, is producing as part of his grant “Resilient Music at the Margins” from the National Research Council of the Philippines in 2016.

In the film, indigenous music among the Manobo Dulangan, T’boli, Obo, and the Tagakaolo in Southern Mindanao remains practised despite the rapidly accelerating and profound Visayanization of places in which the indigenous people have been the first settlers. Songs learnt from the ancestors are still acquired through imitation and these have been put to a number of pragmatic uses, from managing negative emotions (thus aesthetically transforming raw sentiments like anger into the level of art) to the tasks of putting a baby to sleep and of indulging one’s self in leisurely music-making after work. Some songs are the basis of instrumental music like that rendered on bamboo polychordal zither togo, while others, especially those played in whistle flute sloli, disclose human attachments to nature and with Others.

Aside from songs, these people have rhythms that propel dancers in a mimesis of myths from the distant past, notably that of T’boli madal tahu which is about the creation of the world and, existentially, of the symbolic passage of death to life among the Tagakaolo. These “rhythms” are also simulated via delicate and undulating melodic contours on what is now an endangered music instrument of the Philippines, the lip-valley flute. Quintessentially precolonial Filipino, this music depicts the sounds of small creatures in the natural environment– the bird, the snail, the squirrel, and the cicadas of the tropics–but it manifests deep listening (i.e., with a clairaudient ear) in which the player hears a world beyond the sensible material objects on earth.


Manila Symphony Orchestra Unravels its Roots in the UP College of Music

The Manila Symphony Orchestra will hold its 90th anniversary concert in Abelardo Hall Auditorium on Saturday, 27th of February 2016, 8PM. To be conducted by UP professor Arturo Molina, the evening’s programme consists of Symphony in C (1960) by national artist Antonino Buenaventura and Philippine Rhapsody No. 2 (1942) by Rodolfo Cornejo. The piano solo of this piece will be rendered by the award-winning UP College of Music student Gabby Paguirigan. The highlight of the evening is the revival of the long-forgotten work by Alexander Lippay entitled Variations for the Orchestra on the Philippine National Hymn (1928), an immensely interesting piece
that indicates the cultural history of the period. Lippay was a Viennese-trained Austro-hungarian conductor and was the founder of the orchestra while serving as director of the UP Conservatory of Music from 1925 to 1930. The concert pays tribute to this musical visionary as well as to Antonino Buenaventura and Rodolfo Cornejo who were his students circa late 1920s.

One of the oldest symphonic organizations in Asia, the Manila Symphony Orchestra had its first concert on the 22nd of January 1926 in the Manila Grand Opera house. Based on Ma. Edelquinn Beltran’s master’s thesis (2015), the original MSO was an entangled work of teachers from UP Conservatory of Music (changed to College in 1968) and members of the famed Philippine Constabulary Band. The orchestra later consolidated its identity during Mrs. Manuel Quezon’s time as a resident orchestra of the pre-war Manila Metropolitan Theater until the Japanese occupation in early 1940s when it refused to play for a political reason. In late 1970s, the orchestra was under the batons of Sergio Esmilla Jr. followed by Josefino “Chino” Toledo. It was later revived briefly by Redentor Romero in late 1980s and sustainably by violinists Basilio Manalo and Arturo Molina, with the help of Sr. Mary Placid OSB of St. Scholastica College in 2001, and later with Jeffrey Solares in 2008. UP College of Music professor Arturo Molina currently serves as its principal conductor.

Throughout its existence, the Manila Symphony Orchestra has maintained its “civil society” identity, i.e., as a non-governmental organization with funding support primarily from private elite citizens, corporate sponsorships, and ordinary concert goers in Manila on a voluntary basis. Since Manila’s acceleration towards global interconnectedness in the Americal colonial period, MSO’s patronage has responded consistently to the ups and downs of Manila’s economy and to the shifts of its political landscape, albeit sustaining indomitably its fundamental civic character, as true of any modern symphony orchestra. In the history of MSO, one can therefore trace the social relationships of cooperation among heterogeneous groups with different ranks and statuses, consequently enflourishing the culture and life of Manila as a modern city.

Tickets to the concert are available at Ticketworld.


UP Music: Philippine Piano Heritage

The University of the Philippines College of Music presents a remarkable concert titled Piano Music from Romantic Manila in Abelardo Hall Auditorium on Monday, 7 December 2015, 6:30 in the evening. The concert program consists of Philippine music heritage, i.e., original Filipino solo piano music from the end of the Spanish colonial period to the time of the first Philippine republic in 1960s.

To be played by visiting artist from Dartmouth College, Sally Pinkas, the program consists of short compositions in light cosmopolitan music styles such as waltz, mazurka, nocturne, habanera, serenade, and so on. These works were written by three generations of composers who lived in Manila: from Hispanic Ignacio Massaguer to the first Filipino woman composer Dolores Paterno, who belonged to the first generation; Marcelo Adonay, Julio Nakpil, and Lorenzo S Ilustre of the second generation, and composers of the third generation such as Valdes y Pica, Francisco Buencamino Sr., Nicanor Abelardo, Juan Sahagun de Hernandez, Antonio J. Molina, and partly Lucino T. Sacramento.

The repertoire of this historically valuable concert captures a wide range of moods such as the expression of romantic intimacies as in Buencaminos’ Damdamin, Molina’s Cradle Song, and Sacramento’s Romance; the refined and exquisite dances of Adonay’s waltz and mazurka and Santiago’s Purita, all three of which were presentation music gifted to women; the evocative, though parodic, piano art music of Abelardo’s First Nocturne, Molina’s Malikmata, and Santiago’s Nocturne in E-flat Minor; the commemorative patriotism of Nakpil’s Pahimakas and Pasig-Pantayanin, and representations of Filipino femininity such as Paterno’s La Flor de Manila (Sampaguita) and Molina’s Camia. The rest of the program are character pieces such as Massaguer’s La Bella Filipina (originally a song), Hernandez’s Caress, Buencamino’s Smile, and Nakpil’s Recuerdos de Capiz. Except for a few pieces that Pinkas will be rendering from music manuscripts provided to her by University of Santo Tomas Associate Professor Ma. Alexandra Inigo-Chua, UP Professor Elena Mirano and Associate Professor Patricia Brilliantes, most of the music in this concert were once circulated as sheet music among the affluent piano-owning middle class in Manila, i.e., at a time when urbanization and capitalism took root in the city.

Admission ticket to the concert is priced 300 pesos, with 20% discount to senior citizens and 50% to students with valid IDs.


The Arts of Ritual and Play: Toledo’s Misa Lingua Sama Sama at Abelardo Hall Auditorium

The University of the Philippines College of Music cordially invites the public to the enticing concert Misa Lingua Sama Sama on Thursday, 8 October 2015, 6:30PM at the Abelardo Hall Auditorium. The concert is part of the College’s special series that anticipates the 100 years of UP College of Music in September 2016.

Misa Lingua Sama Sama is the newest contemporary art music by composer Prof. Josefino “Chino” Toledo for choir. It sets the different sections of the Mass Ordinary and Proper ( Simula: Omnes Chorus, Kristo Kyrie, Gloriya, Kredo, Santo Sanctus, Pater Namin, KorDei, Humayo Na: Ite Missa Est) plus the Lord’s Prayer and Psalm 104, which will be used as the transition material to the sections.

Each section was composed separately from years 2012-2015, specifically for Ateneo Glee Club, Technological Institute of the Philippines Choral Society, St Scholastica’s College Chamber Choir, choirs of University of the Philippines (UP) Los Banos and UP Manila, Aleron Male Choir, and UP’s very own Philippine Madrigal Singers and the College’s contemporary vocal ensemble Auit. These choirs have used Toledo’s pieces as part of their repertories in international competitions in Europe.

Composed a capella, sonic interest in the work primarily lies in group vocal techniques and colors, with minimal accompaninent of percussion instruments that singers themselves play.

The whole work, to be performed for the first time with a new choreography by the UP Dance Company, is inspired by the trance-like religious practice of “speaking in tongues,” which is characterized by a mixing of languages at extremes–High and Low or Latin and the vernacular–often to the point of the non-intelligibility of both. This is the concept of heteroglossia, which the piece vividly manifests as in the juxtaposition, layering, and segmenting of words, an effect that plays around notions of orthodoxy and heterodoxy. Toledo, however, believes his work is accessible; the whole piece is permeated with chanting and the evocation of ritual and play that are the essences of arts in human cultures.

For affordable admission tickets priced at 300 pesos only (discounts for students with valid IDs and Senior Citizens), please call 926.0026 (look for Lolit or Yvette).

Reflections on Traditional Philippine Music

by the Chair of the Subcommittee on Traditional Southeast Asian Music in SEADOM, Dr. José S. Buenconsejo, on 28 March 2015, 11AM, Abelardo Hall Auditorium, Quezon City, Philippines

​It is impossible to speak about the traditional music of Southeast Asia in the singular. Because of its geography, Continental and Insular Southeast Asia have always been at the crossroads of Asian, European, and American cultures, encounters of which have resulted to both internally- and externally-induced cultural changes. An awareness of the histories of these cross-cultural encounters makes us realize that traditions have not always been received from the past as if pure and fixed but have come about as varied creative responses to culture changes in particular time periods that inevitably affected those traditions. Traditional court musics of Southeast Asia, e.g., have tended to be resilient and conservative–as if timeless traditions–because its adherents have believed in their enduring music essences and have therefore maintained them as such, i.e., permanent and unchanging. But at some point in the past, that timeless tradition must have been constructed as the courts in Southeast Asia had consolidated their power. We know, e.g., that the gamelan of Central Java had roots in village communities and that it was later appropriated by the sultans of Yogyakarta and Surakarta as musical symbols of their power, i.e., as a divine manifestation in a socially constructed cosmology (as discussed for example in Judith Becker’s first book). The same is also true of Hindu-Balinese gamelan, which continues to be practised by villagers today even after the courts are gone (see Geertz).

​Yet traditional court musics of Southeast Asia cannot speak for the whole region. At the fringes of court cultures are village cultures, which, as just mentioned, were the sources from which court music traditions had evolved from. The villages and courts had interdependent cultural relationships with each other. In the villages, among the majority of the populations, there were varied forms of music making that were based on musical interlock–multipart music–as a symbol of social cooperation. For me, this interlock is a shared musical principle that governs many musical systems in the region and it would be good to investigate this closely at a later symposium.

In the Philippines, except the lesser sultanates of Sulu, Maguindanao, and Lanao areas, there has been no court music to speak of nor a history of elaborate codification of music tradition so that it becomes fixed and unchanging. Indigenous Philippine music has always existed in the plural for it is a heterogenous cultural practice of interdependent villages. When the Spaniards colonized the Philippines in 16th century, owing to both economic and religious reasons, the political rise of the town, centered in the poblacion or town center, was what contrasted with the space of the village called barangay (or barrio). In both spaces–town and village–culture was centered on Catholic religion because the priests in the evolution of the dominant Philippine lowland culture were very important in maintaining the hold of Spanish empire in the islands. Religious feasts and devotions were strictly observed and music making was a representation to this political edifice. Each year, communal efforts have been focused on the fiesta where loud brass band music is heard. [I’m reminded of the concert last night. More than half of our students, mostly from the working class, come from this brass band culture.] ​

When the towns evolved into port cities, which exported the agricultural products of the country in 19th century, many European nationals established merchant houses in Manila, Cebu, and Iloilo and therefore government bureaucracy also became more complex, prompting Spanish diaspora in Philippine cities. Along with them were also European writers who wrote travelogues, which did not fail to mention the brass bands as well as local song-dance musical genres that were described to be symbols of national identity like the cundiman, kumintang, and balitao. The travelogues had music transcriptions of these popular music condiman, comintang, and balitao that became “tradition” in the course of time. The transcription of condiman comes from this 1847 album preserved in an illuminated manuscript commissioned by a Spanish journalist Gervacio Centerenolla. The second is a transcription of comintang by the French traveller Jean Baptiste Mallat in 1848 that the English journeyman John Bowring reprinted 1858. There was another book in 1860 that printed the condiman and of course one more in 1892 by Manuel Walls. ​What is fascinating with these materials is that they constructed 19th century popular music in the Philippines, which are actually limited to specific regions in the archipelago, into the national, i.e., for the whole of the Philippine archipelago. My hypothesis is that the transcriptions–writing music–did influence the status of the genres, i.e., they became elevated as a result because a value was added to them such as patriotism and the like. In the case of the kundiman, this genre lost its dance component in 20th century and became a serious type of music for voice alone. The song “Bayan Ko” sung in the 1986 People Power Revolution is a good kundiman.

To look closely, this ubiquitous song-dance genre in the Philippines is not tied in to the national political for it is simply “entertainment” music in village festivities, especially during meetings between wife-givers and wife-takers. The song-dance genres I just mentioned are reminiscent of indigenous types of music still cultivated in remote parts of the Philippine Islands today. As a music that alternates song between man and woman, it is very similar to the Malay pantun or Laotian molam. But the Philippine types were fused with Western element such as lute accompaniment and harmony and are therefore hybrid or mestizaje musics.

What do we learn from this? First, the examples given point to the fact that music tradition is not fixed but something that is made to appear as such as part of a political process in history. Second, we can understand tradition if we explore in depth its context, by which I mean the material conditions that enable the tradition to be fixed. In this short paper, I pointed out the technology of writing. Third, tradition is a response to present circumstances, especially the new or the modern. When the Europeans encountered local culture in the Philippines, they saw a local song-dance as a marker of a place that is different from Europe. While presumably they wrote about it as a costumbre or local custom of the place (hiding the fact that half of it is of Western origin), readers of their travelogues later used the same attention for local custom but added the sentiment of patriotism into the text. Thus, if we do not reflect on the important role that cultural context plays in the construction of tradition, then it will be difficult for us to comprehend that tradition cannot be separated from the new or the modern by which traditions had to adjust.


Bowring, John. A Visit to the Philippine Islands. London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1859.

Mallat de Bassilan, Jean Baptiste. Les Philippines. 2 vols., 1846.

Scherzer, Karl. Reise der österreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859 unter den Befehlen des Commodore B. von Wüllerstorf-Urbair. Volume 2. Vienna: Court and State Printer, 1861.

Walls, Manuel. La Musica Popular de Filipinas. Madrid: 1892. —

Meredith Monk’s A Celebration Service Premieres in the Philippines

The Office of the Chancellor of the University of the Philippines (UP) Diliman and the UP College of Music, in cooperation with the Musical Arts and Research Management Foundation and the Philippine-American Educational Foundation, present a rare music ritual-concert of Meredith Monk’s A Celebration Service on Friday, 30 January 2015, 6:00 PM at the lobby of Quezon Hall (Central Administration Building of UP Diliman), Quezon City, following the flag retreat at 5PM. To be directed by Tom Bogdan of Bennington College in Vermont, USA, who is in Manila under the Fulbright Specialist Program, the work will be interpreted by the UP Madrigal Singers, UP Junior Music Education Guild, and the UP Dance Company, with Elders Ramon Acoymo and Daisy Valenciano and singers Mark Carpio, Camille Bianca Lopez, Riva Ferrer, Terrence, and Tom Virtucio. Allison Easter, another protege of Meredith Monk, will choreograph the show.

As a composer, Monk is considered an extraordinary visionary in the field contemporary art music in the USA today and the premiere of her piece in the Philippines is a momentous event for the UP College of Music, which is celebrating its 99th year. The performance also kicks off the Arts Month of UP Diliman campus.

A Celebration Service is a participative ritual performance that goes beyond passive listening and spectatorship for it fosters a profound musical contemplation on the human experience of connectedness and relationality with various Others in the world–with nature and with the Ineffable. Monk’s work is minimalist, abstract, open-ended, processual, transcendental in terms of time, simple but holistic, mysterious, and it illuminates relationships of presence that ritual is in essence. While songs in this piece are mostly made up of vocables, the mostly ancient texts–to be spoken by ritualist Elders–come from world spiritual traditions. For this performance in the University of the Philippines Diliman, these texts will be recited in Filipino, as translated by poet Pete Lacaba.


Krina Cayabyab arranges Handel’s Messiah, Christmas Portion, to Jazz in Tagalog Language in UP Diliman

The University of the Philippines (UP) College of Music ends its faculty concert series, First Semester of Academic Year 2014-2015, with a jazz arrangement of beloved Handel’s Messiah done by Krina Cayabyab, with translation in Tagalog by famed poet laureate of the Philippines, Pete Lacaba. The concert will be done on 5 December 2015, 6:30 PM on the steps facing the amphitheater beside Quezon Hall–the administrative center of UP Diliman–as a way of celebrating the last day of classes in the said campus and ushering in the festive Christmas season. The first of its kind in the history of Philippine music, Jazz Messiah in Tagalog, innovates tradition with a view to futurity in which world local cultures combine in a spirit of cosmopolitanism.

The event will feature Prof. Rayben Maigue’s well-known UP Jazz Band accompanying the famous choirs of UP Diliman such as Philippine Madrigal Singers (Mark Carpio, director), UP Concert Chorus (Jai Sabas-Aracama, who is the main choirmaster of the event), UP Singing Ambassadors (Ed Manguiat, conductor), and UP Staff Chorale (Chris Reyes, director). Each of these choirs will render two Christmas songs in the first part of the show, which is free to the public.

Translating this musical masterpiece by Handel, which comes from mid-18th century into 21st century popular music and language comes as a way of paying homage to art as well as destabilizing the myth of authenticity that has generated many inter-ethnic conflicts around the world. By situating an expression that sits comfortably both *inside and outside cultural-linguistic particularities,* the College and the university hope to convey a message that beyond cultural borders, a heterogenous social world harmony is achievable if alternative voices–jazz and Tagalog–are heard in the global ecumene. The evolution of music for a million years has witnessed how music has been one of the most potent symbols in human behavior that has been fostering solidarities that are necessary for human adaptation and survival.


UP Madrigal Singers Sing José A. Estella’s Bird Songs in Abelardo Hall

Music lovers in Manila will have a rare opportunity to listen to José A. Estella’s other “Ang Maya” songs that have been specially arranged by Chris Borela for the UP Madrigal Singers concerts on 9 and 10 October, 2014, 6:30PM, Abelardo Hall Auditorium, Quezon City. Dubbed “Panorama,” the concerts on the theme of picturesque music will be directed by Mark Carpio, as part of the College’s on-going faculty concert series. Mark Carpio is one of the best choral directors the Philippines has ever known.

José A. Estella (1870-1943) was a Spanish insular, a creollo, a Filipino composer who was not a mere gig musician who composed waltzes but an important public intellectual who filipinized Spanish zarzuelas from 1890s to 1900s and a nationalist artist who asserted the beauty of Philippine folk songs and dances in his large works such as Cancionero Filipino, Filipinas Symphony (1928), the first symphony written by a Filipino, Ultimo Adios (symphonic ode), and the opera Lakambini (Maiden). These works are all preserved in a collection that Estella’s granddaughter, Mrs. Mariles Teotico had donated to UP Music Library in April 2014. The scope of preserved music manuscripts and prints in the Estella collection is unique for it chronicles a wide time period (late 1880s to 1938), the cultural history of which is yet to be written. Practically all of José Estella’s music creations–arrangements, transcriptions, and original compositions based on Cebuano balitaw, Hiligaynon Lulay, Tagalog auit and condiman, Waray Curacha–are intact in this collection having been safeguarded from the many wars (1896 revolution, 1898 Filipino-American war, and 1945 Liberation of Manila from the Japanese) that were a prelude to the first Philippine Republic in 1946.

The “Ang Maya” waltz was a piece in Estella’s 1905 sarsuwela–with Severino Reyes as librettist– Filipinas para los Filipinos, which critiqued the racist bill forbidding Filipino men to marry American women, a double-standard in colonial policy. “Maya” is rice bird, a typical object in Philippine landscape. Estella consciously represented the everyday life of common tao in the Philippines, thus predating some works by composers who graduated from UP Conservatory of Music in 1920s.

Tickets are at 500 pesos each, with discounts to students and senior citizens. For details, please contact the UP College of Music (02) 926.0026.


Full Philippine Premiere of Dvorak’s Rusalka at Cultural Center of the Philippines and UP College of Music

The University of the Philippines College of Music will bring to life Antonin Dvorak’s heart-rending lyric fairy tale opera Rusalka on 11 and 12 September, 7:30pm at the Cultural Center of the Philippines Little Theater, Pasay City, and on 23 and 24 September, 6:30pm at the Abelardo Hall Auditorium, Quezon City. The show is directed by Alegria Ferrer with chamber orchestra to be conducted by Josefino Toledo and with sets and lighting design by Dan Silvestre and David Ohm, respectively.

In the cast are brilliant young Filipino sopranos Fame Flores and Bianca Camille Lopez, who will alternate in characterizing the difficult main role of a water sprite (serena) named Rusalka who aspires to love a human being but, in the process, was rejected and who, therefore, learnt the hazards of loving a fleshly creature that a human being is.

A full premiere of the work in the Philippines, UP’s Rusalka will be adapted to a Filipino setting, particularly to the time of Isabelo de los Reyes (1864-1938), whose contribution to knowledge of Philippine folklore is pioneering. An ilustrado intellectual of late 19th to early 20th centuries, de los Reyes documented narratives of living Philippine folk beliefs and practices of his time in order to build an archive of Philippine culture so as to understand the uniqueness of Philippine society in relation to universal truth and science.

The love that Rusalka learns in dealing with a human being in this fairy tale opera, though originating far from the Philippines, is one such truth and Isabelo de los Reyes would have easily understood its universal message. As a homage to him being a cosmopolitan Filipino nationalist who is celebrating his 150th birth centenary this year, UP College of Music juxtaposes, without translating, the original music of this opera that will be sung in English with characters whose names are familiar to Filipinos such as the spirits of the environment like diwata, hukluban, serena, nuno ng lawa, etc.

Tickets at 600 pesos each for the CCP shows and at 500 pesos each for UP are now on sale, with discounts to senior citizens and currently enrolled students. For further details, please call UP College of Music at 926.0026 or 9296963 or through UP trunkline at 981-8500 local 2639. One may also visit or